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Oldest Country in the World

The first recorded dynasty in Chinese history existed more than 3500 years ago!
The feudal Shang dynasty existed from the 17th to 11th century BCE. Nonetheless, China celebrates the year 221 BCE as the founding of the modern country. At that point, Qin Shi Huang proclaimed himself the First Emperor of China. In the third century CE, the Han dynasty developed, creating a unified Chinese culture and tradition. In the thirteenth century, the Mongol invasion resulted in a Mongol rule of China, decimating the population and culture. The Republic of China was founded in 1912 and 1949 China transformed into the People's Republic of China that exists to this day.

#1 Han dynasty was the longest reigning imperial dynasty of China
Zhou dynasty (1046 BC – 256 BC) lasted longer than any other dynasty in Chinese history. However from the unification of China by Qin Shi Huang of the Qin dynasty until the end of dynastic rule in China, Han dynasty reigned over China for the longest period, which was over 400 years. Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China. It was preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–207 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD)
Han Dynasty empire in 87 ( BCHan Dynasty) empire in 87 BC

#2 Han dynasty was founded by Liu Bang who belonged to the peasant class
After the collapse of China’s first imperial dynasty Qin, there was a war between two former rebel leaders, Xiang Yu of Chu and Liu Bang of Han, to take control of China. Known as the Chu–Han Contention, the struggle ended with Liu Bang’s decisive victory at the Battle of Gaixia in 202 BC. Liu Bang assumed the title of emperor and was posthumously known as Emperor Gaozu of Han. Gaozu was one of the few dynasty founders in Chinese history originating from the peasant class.

#3 Han dynasty’s reign was interrupted by Xin dynasty
The rule of the Han dynasty was interrupted when Wang Mang, who was serving as a regent, usurped the throne, declared the end of Han dynasty and began his own dynasty Xin. The reign of Xin dynasty lasted for a short period from 9 BC to 23 BC, and the Han Empire was restored by Liu Xiu, who later became Emperor Guangwu of Han.

#4 The reign of Han dynasty is divided into two periods
Scholars have divided the reign of Han dynasty into two periods. The period before the Xin interruption when the capital was in the western Chinese city of Chang’a (now Xi’an) is known as Western Han or Former Han (206 BC – 9 AD) while the period after the Xin interruption when the capital was moved eastward to Luoyang is known as Eastern Han or Latter Han (25–220 AD).

#5 Emperor Wu is considered the greatest emperor of Han
Emperor Wu was the longest reigning emperor of the Han dynasty. His reign lasted 54 years, a record until the 61 years reign of the Kangxi Emperor more than 1,800 years later. Wu led many successful military expeditions and brought the Han Empire to its zenith. It spanned from modern Kyrgyzstan in the west to Korea in the east, and to northern Vietnam in the south. His reign was also marked by a strong and centralized state; and religious and cultural prosperity.

#6 The famous Silk Road was established during the reign of Han dynasty
Diplomat Zhang Qian, who served Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty, traveled and brought back information about surrounding civilizations. Thus, the Han dynasty was able to establish embassies in several countries. These connections led to the Silk Road trade network that extended to the Roman Empire. Deriving its name from Chinese silk, which was the major trade item, Silk Road was instrumental in the development of civilizations of China, India, Persia, Europe, and Arabia through economic and political interactions between them.

#7 Papermaking technology was invented during Han dynasty’s reign
Cai Lun was a court eunuch during the Eastern Han Dynasty. Though early forms of paper existed in China since 2nd century BC, Cai Lun was responsible for the invention of the standard paper-making process. The oldest known surviving piece of paper with writing on it was found in the ruins of a Han watchtower that had been abandoned in 110 AD.

#8 First use of negative numbers in the world was during the Han period
Advancements in mathematics during the Han dynasty include the discovery in China of square roots, cube roots, the Pythagorean Theorem, improved calculations of pi, and most prominently the first use of negative numbers in world history. Rudder, which is used to steer a ship, boat, etc. was invented during the Han period and so was seismoscope, which indicates motions of the ground caused by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, etc. Also, a manually operated rotary fan was invented by the engineer Ding Huan of the Han Dynasty.

#9 Confucianism was the official state ideology of the Han
Qin dynasty ruled with a single philosophy, Legalism and all other non-legalist philosophies including Confucianism were suppressed during their reign. During the early Han period, teachings of Legalism and Confucianism were both accepted. However, the Han court under Emperor Wu gave Confucianism exclusive patronage and from then on Confucianism became the official state ideology of the Han. Confucianism would remain among the most prominent philosophies in China until modern times.

#10 The Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history
Han dynasty’s long period of stability and prosperity consolidated the foundation of China as a unified state. Apart from being an age of economic prosperity, art and culture advanced to unprecedented heights. It was also one of the most prolific eras of science and technology in ancient China. Such is the impact of Han dynasty that to this day, China’s majority ethnic group refers to itself as the “Han people” and the Chinese script is